2016/2/22

Android Thread 溝通方式


  1. 單向資料管道 pipe
  2. 共用記憶體
  3. BlockingQueue: Producer-Consumer Pattern
  4. Message Queue
  5. 將任務回傳給 Thread

可參考作者的 sample code
EAT sample code chap4


pipe


sample code


範例中用 PipedWrite, PipedReader 建立單向資料傳遞。worker thread 可持續讀取 UI thread 產生的文字資料。


public class PipeExampleActivity extends Activity {

    PipedReader r;
    PipedWriter w;

    private Thread workerThread;

    public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);

        r = new PipedReader();
        w = new PipedWriter();

        try {
            w.connect(r);
        } catch (IOException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }

        workerThread = new Thread(new TextHandlerTask(r));
        workerThread.start();
        
        // w.write(); 可持續傳送字串到 TextHandlerTask 另一個讀取資料的 Thread
    }

    private static class TextHandlerTask implements Runnable {
        private final PipedReader reader;

        public TextHandlerTask(PipedReader reader){
            this.reader = reader;
        }
        @Override
        public void run() {
            while(!Thread.currentThread().isInterrupted()){
                try {
                    int i;
                    while((i = reader.read()) != -1){
                        char c = (char) i;
                        //ADD TEXT PROCESSING LOGIC HERE
                        Log.d(TAG, "char = " + c);
                    }

                } catch (IOException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
            }
        }
    }
}


共用記憶體



如果物件屬於以下這幾種,就會被儲存在共用記憶體中,物件的 reference 會儲存在執行緒的 stack。


  1. 實例成員變數
  2. 類別成員變數
  3. 方法中宣告的物件

執行緒的信號通知機制


synchronized ReentranLock ReentrantReadWriteLock
Blocking to wait Object.wait() Object.wait(timeout) Condition.await() Condition.await(timeout) Condition.await() Condition.await(timeout)
以信號通知 blocking 的執行緒 Object.notify() Object.notifyAll() Condition.signal() Condition.signalAll() Condition.signal() Condition.signalAll()

BlockingQueue: Producer-Consumer Pattern



public class ConsumerProducer {
    private final int LIMIT=10;
    private BlockingQueue<Integer> blockingQueue = new LinkedBlockingQueue<Integer>(LIMIT);
    
    private void produce throws InterruptedException {
        int value=0;
        while(true) {
            blockingQueue.put(value);
        }
    }
    
    public void consume throws InterruptedException {
        while(true) {
            int value = blockingQueue.take();
        }
    }
}

Message Queue


Message Queue 是最適合用在 Android APP 的溝通機制。



  1. Insert: 利用連接到 consumer thread 的 Handler,producer thread 將訊息插入 queue
  2. Get: consumer thread 會執行 Looper,從 queue 裡面取得訊息
  3. Deliver: Handler 負責處理 consumer thread 的訊息。Thread 可以有多個 Handler instance 來處理訊息,Looper 可確保訊息被送到正確的 Handler。

UI thread 是唯一預設就與 Looper 相關連的執行緒, UI Looper 跟其他 Looper 有些差異
1. 它可以在任何地方被存取: Looper.getMainLooper()
2. 不能被終止: Looper.quit 會丟出 RuntimeException
3. 執行時,透過 Looper.prepareMainLooper() 把 Looper 關聯到 UI thread,每個 APP 都只能做一次


基本的訊息發送範例


public class LooperActivity extends Activity {

    LooperThread mLooperThread;

    // 定義 worker thread
    private static class LooperThread extends Thread {

        public Handler mHandler;

        public void run() {
            // 將 Looper 與 worker thread 連結在一起
            Looper.prepare();
            // 設定 Handler,讓 producer 可以插入訊息
            mHandler = new Handler() {
                // 當訊息被送到 worker thread 時的 callback
                public void handleMessage(Message msg) {
                    if(msg.what == 0) {
                        doLongRunningOperation();
                    }
                }
            };
            // blocking 呼叫,讓 message queue 可發送訊息給 consumer thread
            Looper.loop();
        }

        private void doLongRunningOperation() {
            // Add long running operation here.
        }
    }

    public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_looper);
        // 啟動 worker thread
        mLooperThread = new LooperThread();
        mLooperThread.start();
    }

    public void onClick(View v) {
        if (mLooperThread.mHandler != null) {
            // 初始化 message
            Message msg = mLooperThread.mHandler.obtainMessage(0);
            // 發送訊息mLooperThread.mHandler.sendMessage(msg);
        }
    }

    protected void onDestroy() {
        super.onDestroy();
        // 終止 worker thead,讓 Looper.loop 結束 blocking
        mLooperThread.mHandler.getLooper().quit();
    }
}

如果有一段時間沒有訊息,就會進入 IdleHandler


public class ConsumeAndQuitThreadActivity extends Activity {


    public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);

        final ConsumeAndQuitThread consumeAndQuitThread = new ConsumeAndQuitThread();
        consumeAndQuitThread.start();
        
        // 模擬多個 threads 隨機插入訊息
        for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
            new Thread(new Runnable() {
                @Override
                public void run() {
                    for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
                        SystemClock.sleep(new Random().nextInt(10));
                        consumeAndQuitThread.enqueueData(i);
                    }
                }
            }).start();
        }
    }

    private static class ConsumeAndQuitThread extends Thread implements MessageQueue.IdleHandler {

        private static final String THREAD_NAME = "ConsumeAndQuitThread";

        public Handler mConsumerHandler;
        private boolean mIsFirstIdle = true;

        public ConsumeAndQuitThread() {
            super(THREAD_NAME);
        }

        @Override
        public void run() {
            Looper.prepare();

            mConsumerHandler = new Handler() {
                @Override
                public void handleMessage(Message msg) {
                    // Consume data
                }
            };
            // 在啟動背景執行緒時,註冊 IdleHandler
            Looper.myQueue().addIdleHandler(this);
            Looper.loop();
        }


        @Override
        public boolean queueIdle() {
            if (mIsFirstIdle) {
                // 不處理第一次的 idle
                mIsFirstIdle = false;
                return true;
            }
            // 發生 idle 時,終止該執行緒
            mConsumerHandler.getLooper().quit();
            return false;
        }

        public void enqueueData(int i) {
            mConsumerHandler.sendEmptyMessage(i);
        }
    }
}

以下是資料訊息


Message.obtain(Handler h);
Message.obtain(Handler h, int what);
Message.obtain(Handler h, int what, Object o);
Message.obtain(Handler h, int what, int arg1, int arg2);
Message.obtain(Handler h, int what, int arg1, int arg2, Object o);

將資料訊息插入 message queue


boolean sendMessage(Message msg)
boolean sendMessageAtFrontOfQueue(Message msg)
boolean sendMessageAtTime(Message msg, long uptimeMillis)
boolean sendMessageDelayed(Message msg, long delayMillis)

// 簡單的訊息
boolean sendEmptyMessage(int what)
boolean sendEmptyMessageAtTime(int what, long uptimeMillis)
boolean sendEmptyMessageDelayed(int what, long delayMillis)

以下是任務訊息


//產生訊息時,同時指定 handler
Message m = Message.obtain(handler, runnable);
m.sendToTarget();

將任務訊息插入 message queue


boolean post(Runnable r)
boolean postAtFrontOfQueue(Runnable r)
boolean postAtTime(Runnable r, Object token, long uptimeMillis)
boolean post(Runnable r, long uptimeMillis)
boolean postDelayed(Runnable r, long delayMillis)

雙向傳遞訊息的範例


public class HandlerExampleActivity extends Activity {

    private final static int SHOW_PROGRESS_BAR = 1;
    private final static int HIDE_PROGRESS_BAR = 0;
    private BackgroundThread mBackgroundThread;

    private TextView mText;
    private Button mButton;
    private ProgressBar mProgressBar;

    @Override
    public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_handler_example);

        // 當 activity 建立時,就啟動背景執行緒,處理來自 UI thread 的任務
        mBackgroundThread = new BackgroundThread();
        mBackgroundThread.start();

        mText = (TextView) findViewById(R.id.text);
        mProgressBar = (ProgressBar) findViewById(R.id.progress);
        mButton = (Button) findViewById(R.id.button);
        mButton.setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener() {
            @Override
            public void onClick(View v) {
                // 點擊按鈕,將任務傳送給背景執行緒
                mBackgroundThread.doWork();
            }
        });
    }

    @Override
    protected void onDestroy() {
        super.onDestroy();
        // 停止背景執行緒
        mBackgroundThread.exit();
    }

    private final Handler mUiHandler = new Handler() {
        public void handleMessage(Message msg) {

            switch(msg.what) {
                case SHOW_PROGRESS_BAR:
                    mProgressBar.setVisibility(View.VISIBLE);
                    break;
                case HIDE_PROGRESS_BAR:
                    mText.setText(String.valueOf(msg.arg1));
                    mProgressBar.setVisibility(View.INVISIBLE);
                    break;
            }
        }
    };

    private class BackgroundThread extends Thread {

        private Handler mBackgroundHandler;

        public void run() {
            // 將 looper 與這個執行緒關聯起來
            Looper.prepare();
            // 此 Handler 只處理 Runnable
            mBackgroundHandler = new Handler();
            Looper.loop();
        }

        public void doWork() {
            mBackgroundHandler.post(new Runnable() {
                @Override
                public void run() {
                    // 建立只傳送 what 的 Message 物件,讓 Progress Bar 更新進度
                    Message uiMsg = mUiHandler.obtainMessage(SHOW_PROGRESS_BAR, 0,
                            0, null);
                    // 傳送訊息
                    mUiHandler.sendMessage(uiMsg);

                    Random r = new Random();
                    int randomInt = r.nextInt(5000);
                    SystemClock.sleep(randomInt);

                    // 建立物件,用來移除 progress bar
                    uiMsg = mUiHandler.obtainMessage(HIDE_PROGRESS_BAR, randomInt,
                            0, null);
                    mUiHandler.sendMessage(uiMsg);
                }
            });
        }

        public void exit() {
            mBackgroundHandler.getLooper().quit();
        }
    }
}

Handler 也可以利用 Callback interface 建立


public class HandlerCallbackActivity extends Activity implements Handler.Callback {

    @Override
    public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_handler_callback);
    }

    @Override
    public boolean handleMessage(Message msg) {
        switch (msg.what) {
            case 1:
                msg.what = 11;
                return true;
            default:
                msg.what = 22;
                return false;
        }
    }

    public void onHandlerCallback(View v) {
        Handler handler = new Handler(this) {
            @Override
            public void handleMessage(Message msg) {
                // Process message
            }
        };
        // 插入訊息,該訊息會被 Callback 攔截
        handler.sendEmptyMessage(1);
        handler.sendEmptyMessage(2);
    }
}

觀察 message queue 的方法


為目前的 message queue 產生 snapshot


public class MQDebugActivity extends Activity {

    private static final String TAG = "EAT";
    Handler mWorkerHandler;

    public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_mq_debug);

        Thread t = new Thread() {
            @Override
            public void run() {
                Looper.prepare();
                mWorkerHandler = new Handler() {
                    @Override
                    public void handleMessage(Message msg) {
                        Log.d(TAG, "handleMessage - what = " + msg.what);
                    }
                };
                Looper.loop();
            }
        };
        t.start();
    }

    // Called on button click, i.e. from the UI thread.
    public void onClick(View v) {
        mWorkerHandler.sendEmptyMessageDelayed(1, 2000);
        mWorkerHandler.sendEmptyMessage(2);
        mWorkerHandler.obtainMessage(3, 0, 0, new Object()).sendToTarget();
        mWorkerHandler.sendEmptyMessageDelayed(4, 300);
        mWorkerHandler.postDelayed(new Runnable() {
            @Override
            public void run() {
                Log.d(TAG, "Execute");
            }
        }, 400);
        mWorkerHandler.sendEmptyMessage(5);

        mWorkerHandler.dump(new LogPrinter(Log.DEBUG, TAG), "");
    }
}

也可以追蹤 message queue 的處理


Looper.myLopper().setMessageLogging(new LogPrinter(Log.DEBUG, TAG))

與 UI Thread 溝通


訊息透過 UI Thread 的 Looper 傳遞給 UI Thread,這個 Looper 可透過 Looper.getMainLooper() 取得。


Runnable task = new Runnable() {...};
new Handler(Looper.getMainLooper()).post(task);

UI thread 發布給自己的任務訊息,可繞過訊息傳遞機制,並透過 Activity.runOnUiThread(Runnable ) 立刻被執行。


可在 Application 中透過 Thread ID 的方式識別 UI thread


public class TestApplication extends Application {
    private long mUiThreadId;
    private Handler mUiHandler;
    
    public void onCreate() {
        super.onCreate();
        mUiThreadId = Thread.currentThread().getId();
        mUiHandler = new Handler();
    }
    
    public void customRunOnUiThread(Runnable action) {
        if( Thread.currentThread().getId() != mUiThreadId ) {
            mUiHandler.post(action);
        } else {
            action.run();
        }
    }
}

Reference


Android 高效能多執行緒